Causes of kidney disease

Causes of kidney disease
Source : Pixabay

The vital organs of the body are the kidneys, which cannot survive if they become completely inactive.  Apart from complete disability, there are different types of kidney diseases.  Types of kidney disease, causes and founder President of Kidney Foundation Hospital and Research Institute Prof.  Dr. Salah.  Haroon and Rashid

If the kidney itself is affected by a disease, if the kidney is damaged by some other disease, kidney function is lost.  There are generally two types of kidney disease – acute and chronic.


Acute kidney injury (AKI)

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a temporary kidney problem which is a stage disease of the kidney.  A person's kidney function has suddenly decreased or lost due to diarrhoea, excessive bleeding, etc.  Someone must have run a marathon again, then it turns out that he had suddenly suffered a serious kidney injury.  In addition, 15-20 percent of kidney disease can be caused by the use of additional antibiotics and painkillers.  After diarrhea and excessive bleeding, the kidneys return to normal with proper treatment.  Neglect can lead to permanent kidney failure.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a chronic kidney disease.  Diabetes, high blood pressure and glomerulonephritis or inflammation of the kidney are some of the causes of this disease.  Hereditary or congenital diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, can cause long-term kidney disease.  It can also be caused by structural abnormalities of the kidneys in the womb.

The main problem with this disease is that the normal functioning of the kidney gradually deteriorates without any symptoms and the disease develops in the late stage of the disease.  Some of the symptoms are physical weakness, loss of appetite, decreased urination, infection etc.  There is no complete cure for CKD, but efforts are made to keep the patient free from complications.  In the case of complete kidney failure, dialysis and kidney transplant have to be done.

Serious kidney disease can be prevented by drinking eight to 10 glasses of water daily, controlling diabetes, high blood pressure, eating lots of vegetables and fruits, exercising regularly and abstaining from alcohol.

Main cause of kidney disease

Kidney damage or permanent kidney failure due to various reasons.  However, a recent study found that 46 percent of kidney failures were due to nephritis, 36 percent due to diabetes and 11 percent due to high blood pressure.  In addition, there are hereditary, drug effects, etc.

Nephritis

Nephritis is a major kidney disease.  This disease can occur at any age.  In children, the disease is 90 percent curable.  complications for adults.  There are two types of nephritis – infectious and non-infectious.  Nephritis accounts for 20 percent of infectious and 80 percent of non-infectious causes, the cause of which is completely unknown.  Infectious causes can be prevented or treated.  But the treatment of non-communicable diseases is quite complex.

In nephritis, the body swells, blood pressure rises and the flesh is excreted in the urine.  Even red blood cells, casts or white blood cells can pass into the urine.  A compound called creatinine can build up in the blood. The disease can be detected by microscopic examination (biopsy) by removing tissue from the kidney through a needle.  Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is curable in 30 percent of cases with early treatment.  It is feared that despite treatment, 60 percent of patients lose their kidney function within 10-15 years and the kidney becomes completely useless.

Diabetes

Diabetes is not a serious disease.  However, it is fatal due to non-compliance of rules and lack of proper treatment.  Insulin can be used to treat type 1 diabetes.  Older people or type 2 diabetes can be controlled with proper diet, tablets or insulin.  98 percent of diabetic patients are type 2.  However, it is also possible to cure or prevent diabetes.  A diabetic patient can be completely transformed by being aware by changing the food habits, regular use of medicines and healthy living habits.

It is worrying that 40 percent of diabetic patients suffer from kidney disease.  It can happen at any time since the diagnosis of diabetes.  That's why it is important for every diabetic patient to know if someone has kidney disease.  It can be understood whether a person is suffering from diabetic kidney disease or not by looking at the urine test and the level of creatinine in the blood.  This test is especially important for diabetics over the age of forty and patients with diabetes in their families.

High blood pressure

High blood pressure is the third leading cause of kidney disease.  In developed countries, 20-25 percent of high blood pressure causes kidney failure.  In addition, high blood pressure causes brain strokes and heart attacks.  If high blood pressure is not controlled it can have serious consequences.

Most normal people think that high blood pressure doesn't need treatment until symptoms appear.  Again, many people think that it is better not to take high blood pressure medication.  Or if blood pressure is controlled by taking medicine, then medicine is not needed.  Again, many people think that taking this drug for a lifetime can cause great harm to the body.  Basically these are all wrong ideas, causing high blood pressure to remain dormant.  Its tendency is that the kidneys become useless later.  Then some symptoms appear, but the doctor has nothing to do with it.

Therefore, whether one has high blood pressure or not, it should be regularly checked.  Especially those in their forties and those in the family who have high blood pressure or kidney disease should have their blood pressure checked once or twice a year to control it.  And if blood pressure is predicted, treatment should be started.  Also, change the rules of life, avoid salt, walk or exercise for 30 minutes daily, blood pressure should be kept under control.

Genetic

Sometimes kidney disease in someone in the family is due to heredity, then someone else may have kidney disease.  2-3 percent of diseases are due to heredity.  However, single genetic factors are not easy.  Polycystic kidney disease is the main cause of hereditary kidney disease, which can be cured through medication.  Congenital kidney function is low or the size of the kidney is small or large.  It can also lead to chronic kidney disease.  Therefore, people who have or have had kidney disease in their family, they need to be a little more careful.

It should be remembered that any type of kidney disease is not fatal in its early stages.  Rather, most kidney diseases can be prevented if detected early.

Nice to know

There are about 20-25 lakh nephrons or filters in both the human kidneys, which purify about 180 liters of blood daily and keep the body healthy.

Kidney works to control blood pressure, eliminate anemia and strengthen bones. Urinary tract inflammation is a common kidney disease but it can be fatal in children.

After both kidneys are 85-90 percent dysfunctional, dialysis or kidney transplant is the only way to survive.

Kidney disease is not contagious, but can be hereditary.

About 40,000 patients in Bangladesh die prematurely every year due to slow kidney failure.

If the kidney fails, only 10 percent of Bangladesh can't afford dialysis treatment.  So know about kidney disease, be careful and prevent.